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- Our database gives you the opportunity to contribute to our monitoring of E-Voting around the world. Please find our how tohow to.
- You can find hundreds of editable tables in wiki-style with uses of electronic voting and test runs. Please participate and help us build on this task by adding your experiences with e-voting.
- You can contribute with your knowledge either by filling in our questionnaire or by adding a new page with the Wiki editor.
Data from e-voting uses around the world
Current number of electronic elections in our growing database: 241
Definition of e-voting
When talking about e-voting it is necessary to define the subject.
We understand by electronic voting the use of electronic means in at least the casting of the vote.
E-Voting enables new methods of polling, which facilitates the comfort, the opportunities to participate and the mobility of voters.
- Facilitating of voting for citizens, who live abroad or are disabled and consequently limited in terms of mobility
- Reducing costs on the long-term
- Acceleration of vote counting
- Easier election participation
- Higher reliability of the election result
Explanation of questionnaire items
You can find a paper which describes the items and the research methodology in detail here!
For quick orientation we added the most important items and their description below.
In this field the name of the election in the countries national language should be added
This is a consecutive number, please leave empty if unsure.
Translate the title of the election into english
Here we differentiate between three levels were elections can take place. 1 stands for elections at the national level (please differentiate from nation-wide elections), 2 stands for elections at the regional and municipal level and 3 stands for elections in associations and corporations.
Hereby we mean if the results of the elections had consequences like the politicians elected into a parliament or a referendum where the results where binding for the politicians. 1 stands for binding, 0 for non-binding and therefore a pure test.
A shadow election is a test where the e-voting takes place in parallel to the real election on paper and where the electronic results were not binding but the rest of the process was kept similar.
Begin of the electronic vote cast
End of the electronic vote cast
Number of days of the election period
When did the electronic vote cast take place?
There are three possibilities - Before the official election period, during the election period, before and during the election period.
Number of eligible voters in the election in total
Number of voters that participated in the election
Eligible Electronic Voters
Number of eligible voters that could cast their vote in the electronic vote cast
Number of voters that cast an electronic vote
Turnout in the whole election
Turnout for the electronic part of the election
This means which channels to cast a vote were available.
Was paper based voting available in the polling station
Was paper based postal voting available
Was paper based voting available in the polling station where the ballot sheets were then scanned and counted by an OCR-scanner
Was an electronic voting machine in use at the polling station
Networked Voting machine
Was a networked electronic voting machine in use at the polling station
Were kiosk with e-voting available outside the polling stations
Remote Electronic Voting
Was there internet voting available
Name of the machine or software
Who was the main provider of the hardware/software
For identifying a voter three basic criteria can be used to differentiate the technologies: (i) knowledge, (ii) possession, and (iii) properties. A fourth possibility is a combination thereof. These identification technologies are used in remote e-voting:
1. Username and Password: The identification relies on the voter knowing a secret.
2. Transaction Number (TAN): The voter possesses something that identifies him/herself.
3. Biometrics: The voter him/herself with his/her individual biometric properties identifies him/herself. A reader for the biometric feature is needed.
4. Smart Cards: The voter knows a secret that in combination with the possession of the card identifies him. Or a property pattern of the voter is stored on the smart card that is checked against the voter’s property when casting a ballot -either way, a reader for the smart card is needed.
Other than the methods here specified.
Anonymity is established in the pre-election period by the organizing institution. The most common implementation of such a system uses transaction numbers (TAN). These numbers are generated centrally and a scratch-field is applied. Then in a second step the voter’s address is applied and sent to the voter who can use the number anonymously for exactly one vote.
With this method the anonymity is established during the vote casting procedure. It can either be done by separating the servers in an identification and ballot box server or by blind signatures; the most common implementation of Chaum’s blind signature is in the Fujioka et al. algorithm. The process can be explained as follows: the voter fills out his/her ballot sheet, then puts it in an carbon-copy envelope. The voter then signs another envelope with his/her personal signature and inserts the carbon-copy envelope and sends the package to his/her register. They check the voting eligibility based on the voter’s signature, then sign the carbon copy envelope and return it to the voter. The voter opens the cc-envelope and has a signed ballot sheet (due to the carbon copy) without the voter’s register ever having seen the ballot sheet. Finally she returns the ballot sheet to the ballot box and has thereby cast a valid vote anonymously.
In this case the anonymity is established after the end of the election day, when the votes can still be identified but the count can only be conducted together meaning the content of a single vote is never released. The most common implementations use homomorphic encryption like the Schoenmakers algorithm or hardware security modules like the Estonian system.
General comments to the election
Please insert the URL or text references for this election here
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